“Based on a study of 107 tribal child welfare codes conducted collaboratively by the Native Nations Institute
(NNI) at The University of Arizona and the National Indian Child Welfare Association (NICWA), this report
focuses on eight core aspects of tribal child welfare policy:
• Jurisdiction
• Mandatory reporting
• Alternative (differential) responses
• Paternity
• Removal of a child from the family home
• Termination of parental rights
• Permanency (guardianships and adoption)
• Best interest of the child
Where relevant, our discussions consider how tribal child welfare codes reflect tribal culture and tradition and
how codes can reflect the specific needs of a tribal community. Throughout, the report aims to provide
decision-relevant information for tribal leaders working to increase protections for their communities’
children and families.”